Tips For a Better College of Cardinals

shutterstock_127904000The recent papal interregnum and conclave underscored the importance of re-forming, and reforming, the College of Cardinals.

As configured on Feb. 28, 2013 (when Benedict XVI’s abdication took effect), the college was a somewhat strange electorate, albeit one that produced a striking result. Almost 20 percent of its members were retired. Only eight cardinal-electors were under 65 (and half of the youngsters were Americans—Cardinals Burke, DiNardo, Dolan and Harvey). Neither the dean nor vice-dean of the college was eligible to vote, the dean being 85 and the vice-dean being 90; yet the 85-year-old dean presided over the daily General Congregations of cardinals that assessed the state of the world Church before the conclave was enclosed.

There were other curiosities. India had more cardinal-electors than France (5-4) or Great Britain (5-nil, as they’d say in the Barclays Premier League). Cardinal Lubomyr Husar, emeritus majorarchbishop of the largest of the Eastern Catholic Churches, the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church, missed the conclave by two days, having turned 80 on Feb. 26; the retired president of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity, Walter Kasper, got in under the wire, for he turned 85 days after Benedict’s abdication took effect.

And while no one imagines that the College of Cardinals should “represent” the world Church the way the U.S. House of Representatives “represents” the population of the United States, it did seem odd that Latin America, where over half the world’s Catholics live, sent 19 cardinal-electors into the Sistine Chapel, while Italy, where Catholic practice is not exactly robust these days among 4 percent of the global Catholic population, had 28 electors.

What to do about these anomalies? Some practical suggestions, several drawn from my new book, “Evangelical Catholicism: Deep Reform in the 21st-Century Church” (Basic Books):

1) Eliminate “automatic” red hats for archdioceses where the practice of the faith is moribund. If 7 percent of the local Catholic population is attending Mass on Sunday, as is sadly the case in some ancient European sees, why should the bishop or archbishop of that see be guaranteed membership in the College of Cardinals? Let the bishops in these dead zones show that they can re-evangelize Catholic wastelands; then return the red hat to those locales.

2) Amend the relevant apostolic constitution so that most of the “pontifical councils” in the Roman Curia become in-house research institutes led, not by cardinals, but by qualified priests, religious or laity.

3) Change the custom by which the heads of various Vatican administrative offices—the Government of Vatican City State, the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See, the Prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See—are automatically cardinals: a reform that would also speak to Pope Francis’ strictures against clerical careerism.

4) Use the “slots” in the papal electorate made possible by these reforms to reorganize the college geographically and demographically. I would also consider expanding the college to a maximum of 144 cardinal-electors (a nice biblical number: 12 Tribes x 12 Apostles), while changing the conclave rules so that all cardinals lose their vote on retirement from daily diocesan or curial service, not when they turn 80. There is wisdom in age; but an electorate in which almost one in five voters is a pensioner is not a well-designed electorate.

Neither the dean nor the vice-dean of the college should be a cardinal-without-a-vote; it makes little sense for the man who presides over the cardinals’ meetings during a papal interregnum (in which all cardinals participate, irrespective of age), or the man who would fill that leadership role in an emergency, to be someone who will not have the responsibility of casting a ballot. And since the Church cannot count on humility to impel the dean and vice-dean to retire when each loses his vote, the interregnum rules should be changed.

Finally, the cardinal-electors should meet regularly—perhaps once every 18 months, for a global review of the new evangelization—so that they can get to know each other better, and thus be a more well-informed electorate.


This article courtesy of the Denver Catholic Register.

George Weigel


George Weigel is an American author and political and social activist. He currently serves as a Distinguished Senior Fellow of the Ethics and Public Policy Center. Weigel was the Founding President of the James Madison Foundation.

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  • Wayne

    I’m confused: You say one cardinal missed the conclave because he turned 80 two days before the abdication, but another made it because he turned 85 days after the abdication…?

  • It’s a misprint. Cardinal Kasper is 80, not 85.

  • Nick

    Small contradiction perhaps in wishing for more Latin American representation and wanting to de-select cardinal archbishops from “dead zones” of the Faith. The latter criterion might disqualify Latin American archbishops as easily as European ones, perhaps more so.

  • Kate Bochte

    George, Didn’t you forget something? The #1 tip for reforming the College is to rid it of any “man” who has endangered children, paid known child rapists, or is sexually active. Oops! That would completely clear the decks, wouldn’t it?

  • Marian333

    Though I hold your writing in high regard Mr. Weigel, it seems somewhat awkward for you to be proposing what should be done. This seems to be a bit like “cafeteria” Catholics in reverse. Certainly it is appropriate for you to have an opinion, and, if asked, to present that to ecclesial authorities for their consideration. As Pope Francis said today, we do not need a worldly Church.

  • Poppiexno

    Kate, Why be so sarcastic (as well as being misinformed)? If you can’t make a serious, or even a humorous comment, that contributes to the discussion why not keep your fingers off the keyboard.
    One priest that abuses a child is one too many! Priests, of all people, should be virtuous and above reproach. Cover up of such abuse is egregious! But for the record, the rate of abuse by priests is LESS than the rate among public school teachers. And one has to wonder, is every allegation of abuse true? Finally, most of the verified cases involved men who entered the priesthood during a period when liberalism in the Church was in ascendency – the same liberalism that now celebrates homosexuality.

  • George, I have most of your books, read all your articles eagerly but I have a sense that you are considering yourself to be more than you are – the Pope has chosen a group of advisers – I did not see your name among them. Everyone is trying to advise our new Pope – all have good ideas but let’s give him a break and time to listen to the guidance and counsel of the Holy Spirit. And while giving advice to Popes, you always promote your book…seems a bit self-promoting to me.

  • That’s what I was sensing…he has written great books but he is not the adviser to the Pope and should not be promoting his book while giving advice as to how things should be done…it comes across as more than just his opinion…

  • Kate Bochte

    Poppiexno, You would love for me to stay away from my keyboard because you don’t want to hear the truth. Sadly, my comment was meant to be neither sarcastic nor humorous. There is nothing funny about it, believe me. It was also not about the rate of abuse in the Church or in public schools. Nor was it about liberalism or homosexuality. It was about bishops who still allow known rapists access to unsuspecting children through their assignments in parishes, schools, hospitals, orphanages, missions, etc. It was about bishops who continue to pay (or pay off) known serial child rapists. It was about popes who promote the bishops who endanger children and insult victims the most. I suggest you read sworn depositions and court documents at . The truth with set you free.

  • Ronk

    Typo. It should say Cd Kasper “turned 80, five days after the abdication”.