“I know it when I see it” was the famous response by a U.S. Supreme Court justice to the vexed problem of defining pornography. Terrorism may be no less difficult to define, but the wanton killing of schoolchildren, of mourners at a funeral, or workers at their desks in skyscrapers surely fits the know-it-when-I-see-it definition.
The media, however, generally shies away from the word terrorist, preferring euphemisms. Take the assault that led to the deaths of some 400 people, many of them children, in Beslan, Russia, on September 3. Journalists have been deep into their thesauruses, finding at least twenty euphemisms for terrorists:
• Assailants National Public Radio.
• Attackers the Economist.
• Bombers the Guardian
• Captors the Associated Press.
• Commandos Agence France-Presse refers to the terrorists both as “membres du commando” and “commando.”
• Criminals the Times (London).
• Extremists United Press International.
• Fighters the Washington Post.
• Group the Australian.
• Guerrillas: in a New York Post editorial.
• Gunmen Reuters.
• Hostage-takers the Los Angeles Times.
• Insurgents in a New York Times headline.
• Kidnappers the Observer (London).
• Militants the Chicago Tribune.
• Perpetrators the New York Times.
• Radicals the BBC.
• Rebels in a Sydney Morning Herald headline.
• Separatists the Daily Telegraph.
And my favorite:
• Activists the Pakistan Times.
The origins of this unwillingness to name terrorists seems to lie in the Arab-Israeli conflict, prompted by an odd combination of media sympathy for the Palestinians and intimidation by them. The sympathy is well known; the intimidation less so. Reuters's Nidal al-Mughrabi made the latter explicit in advice for fellow reporters in Gaza to avoid trouble, where one tip reads: “Never use the word terrorist or terrorism in describing Palestinian gunmen and militants; people consider them heroes of the conflict.”
The reluctance to call terrorists by their rightful name can reach absurd lengths of inaccuracy and apologetics. For example, National Public Radio's Morning Edition announced on April 1, 2004, that “Israeli troops have arrested 12 men they say were wanted militants.” But CAMERA, the Committee for Accuracy in Middle East Reporting in America, pointed out the inaccuracy here and NPR issued an on-air correction on April 26: “Israeli military officials were quoted as saying they had arrested 12 men who were 'wanted militants.' But the actual phrase used by the Israeli military was 'wanted terrorists.'”
(At least NPR corrected itself. When the Los Angeles Times made the same error in its April 24 issue, writing that “Israel staged a series of raids in the West Bank that the army described as hunts for wanted Palestinian militants,” its editors refused CAMERA's request for a correction on the grounds that its change in terminology did not occur in a direct quotation.)
Metro, a Dutch paper, ran a picture on May 3, 2004, of two gloved hands belonging to a person taking fingerprints off a dead terrorist. The caption read: “An Israeli police officer takes fingerprints of a dead Palestinian. He is one of the victims (slachtoffers) who fell in the Gaza strip yesterday.” One of the victims!
Euphemistic usage then spread from the Arab-Israeli conflict to other theaters. As terrorism picked up in Saudi Arabia such media as The Times (London) and the Associated Press began routinely using “militants” in reference to Saudi terrorists. Reuters uses it with reference to Kashmir and Algeria.
Thus has “militants” become the media's default term for terrorists.
These self-imposed language limitations sometimes cause journalists to tie themselves into knots. In reporting the murder of one of its own cameraman, the BBC which normally avoids the word terrorist found itself using that term. In another instance, the search engine on the BBC website includes the word terrorist, but the page linked to has had that word expurgated.
Politically-correct news organizations undermine their credibility with such subterfuges. How can one trust what one reads, hears, or sees when the self-evident fact of terrorism is being semi-denied?
Worse, the multiple euphemisms for terrorist obstruct a clear understanding of the violent threats confronting the civilized world. It is bad enough that only one of five articles discussing the Beslan atrocity mentions its Islamist origins; worse is the miasma of words that insulates the public from the evil of terrorism.
Daniel Pipes is director of the Middle East Forum and the author of several books, most recently Militant Islam Reaches America. You may visit his website by clicking here and purchase his books by clicking here.
(This article courtesy of the Middle East Forum.)